The example of Vauxhall Bridge is cited in TfL's financial sustainability plan which was published this week.
According to the document, the grade II listed bridge "which carries over 70,000 vehicles per day ... could face usage restrictions within five years absent investment".
Last year TfL carried out four months of work on Vauxhall Bridge which included bridge deck waterproofing, footway and carriageway resurfacing, drainage improvements, kerb works and the replacement of the bridge's expansion joints.
Of the eight road bridges across the Thames in central London, only three - Vauxhall Bridge, Lambeth Bridge and Westminster Bridge - are owned and operated by TfL.
Waterloo Bridge is owned by the City of Westminster, whilst the remaining central London crossings are owned by City of London's Bridge House Estates charity.
TfL's warning about Vauxhall Bridge comes in the wake of the ongoing controversy about repairs to Hammersmith Bridge, which is owned by Hammersmith & Fulham Council.