The local list - approved by Southwark's cabinet this week - includes 2,449 buildings across the borough, with around 400 of them in the SE1 area.
"This is a really important piece of work that's about preserving cultural assets across our borough," said council leader Cllr Kieron Williams at Tuesday's cabinet meeting.
Michael Tsoukaris, the council's head of design and conservation, told cabinet: "It is about identifying and recognising buildings that are important - and places that are important - to our communities that don't quite meet the statutory [criteria of] national importance, but are normal buildings that we walk past every day that are that our communities value and and cherish."
He stressed that local listing doesn't confer any protection against demolition: "There's limited weight in planning terms that can be applied to a local list, but it's clearly a recognition of those heritage assets that are in our communities."
Mr Tsoukaris added: "These are not restrictive measures, they do not add additional planning planning burdens on on the buildings and and owners."
Cllr Williams thanked those residents who had nominated buildings for inclusion on the local list. He added: "It's another tool to protect bits of our borough that are precious to our residents, and we will use it carefully and judiciously."
Places included on the list range from national landmarks like the Shard, Tate Modern, the Millennium Bridge and Shakespeare's Globe, to brutalist 1960s Elephant & Castle tower blocks and individual bollards and cobbled road surfaces.
At least one building on the list - the facade of the Selected Rug Co building in Long Lane - has already had its demolition approved by councillors.
And another - the former City Hall building at More London - is the subject of active proposals for redevelopment.